Enver Masud, "A Clash Between Justice
and Greed, Not Islam and the West," The Wisdom Fund, September 2,
Lutz Kleveman, "The New Great Game,"
Guardian, October 20, 2003
Patrick Cockburn, "Revealed: Secret Plan
to Keep Iraq Under U.S. Control," Independent, June 5, 2008
Cynthia Tucker, "Big Oil's slick no-bid contracts will keep us mired in
Iraq," Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 22, 2008
Tom Engelhardt, "Media Tell Us About Iraq
War-Oil Connection Five Years After the Fact," Tomdispatch.com,
June 25, 2008
Bill Moyers and Michael Winship, "It Was Oil,
All Along," truthout.org, June 28, 2008
Andrew E. Kramer, "U.S.
Advised Iraqi Ministry on Oil Deals," New York Times, June 30, 2008
[And not only have companies like BP and Texaco been offered these no-bid
contracts, but what's strange about it is that they're service contracts,
and these are not oil service companies. So what's significant about these
contracts is that they appear to be giving these oil companies the right of
first refusal on future, more significant contracts. So, one week after
these smaller service agreements were announced, the Iraqi Oil Ministry
announced that they also will be handing out longer-term management
agreements, which will give oil companies the ability to manage existing
fields in Iraq and hold onto 75 percent of the worth of those contracts and
leave only 25 percent for Iraqis, which is absolutely unheard of in the
region, where 51 percent for the country is the baseline for new
exploration, for new fields. These are existing fields. They're already
working. The technology is already there. And these foreign companies are
going to be taking 75 percent of the worth of those existing fields in Iraq.
So it's daylight robbery. It's armed robbery--"Naomi Klein Reexamines 'The Shock Doctrine'," democracynow.org,
July 15, 2008]
[President Bush says the Iraq war is not about oil but his actions belie
that claim. In the months before the March 2003 invasion, members of the
U.S. State Department "Oil and Energy Working Group" met to plan how to open
Iraq to international oil companies. The oil law now proposed by the Iraqi
Council of Ministers is a virtual photocopy of a plan first drafted by U.S.
oil industry executives and consultants in Houston long before Iraq was
Giving credence to Iraqis' fears, the oil law presented to the Iraqi
Parliament, if enacted, would put effective control of most of Iraq's vast
oil resources into the hands of foreign companies. Despite great pressure
from the U.S. for its adoption, the law remains stalled in the Iraqi
Parliament because a majority clearly oppose it. Prior to the first Gulf war
and the sanctions that followed, Iraq's oil, nationalized since 1975,
provided the foundation for a relatively good standard of living, producing
a high level of literacy, the largest number of engineers per capita in the
Arab world and a health care system considered the best in the region.
The proposed oil law creates a Federal Oil and Gas Council on which would
sit representatives of Exxon-Mobil, Shell, BP, etc., whose tasks include
approving their own contracts. . . .
One Iraqi oil company manager previously employed by Shell told her, "I see
the future of Iraq as the United Arab Emirates... separate states."
The draft oil law provides for "production sharing agreements," or long-term
contracts whereby foreign companies would control production, development
and sale of the oil for up to 30 years, and reap as much as 70% of the
profits. --Nancy Wohlforth and Fred Mason, "The Draft Iraqi Oil Law: Making a Mockery of
Sovereignty," Jurist, September 9, 2008]
Nick Turse, "Pentagon
Hands Iraq Oil Deal to Shell," AlterNet, October 2, 2008
[. . . crude oil prices . . . are this high, and they are this volatile,
because of deregulation, the exact same deregulation that fed the mortgage
meltdown, the exact same deregulation that gave us Enron, if folks remember
Enron, deregulation of crude oil futures markets led by the lobbying efforts
of Big Oil and big banks, who are now reaping big benefits.
. . . campaign contributions are just the very tip of the iceberg. It really
is lobbying, where the big money comes in. It's the front groups that you
don't even know are associated with the oil industry, where the influence
comes in.--"Antonia Juhasz on 'The World's Most
Powerful Industry - What We Must Do to Stop It'," democracynow.org,
October 7, 2008]
[Access is being given to eight fields, representing about 40% of the Middle
Eastern nation's reserves, at a time when the country remains under
occupation by US and British forces.--Terry Macalister and Nicholas Watt,
government fuels 'war for oil' theories by putting reserves up for biggest
ever sale," Guardian, October 13, 2008]
[International oil companies are preparing to go back into Iraq by the end
of the year, in spite of Baghdad's failure to pass an oil law and continuing
concerns over security.--Carola Hoyos, "Oil
groups to end 40-year exile from Iraq," Financial Times, May 6, 2009]
Patrick Cockburn, "Iraqi Oil Minister
accused of mother of all sell-outs," Independent, June 18, 2009
Patrick Cockburn, "Oil rush: Scramble for Iraq's
wealth," Independent, June 21, 2009
[The award of contracts began in Baghdad yesterday and was broadcast live on
television to show there were no secret corrupt deals. But the process was
immediately in trouble as some of the 32 international oil companies
involved baulked at the low level of fees they would be paid by Iraq. . . .
At stake yesterday were six producing oilfields and two undeveloped gas
fields, the most important of which is the massive south Rumaila oilfield
just north of the Kuwaiti border. The contract finally went to a consortium
led by BP and included the China National Petroleum Company, but only after
its initial bid, as well as that of a rival consortium led by Exxon Mobil,
had been rejected by the Iraqi Oil Ministry as too low. Other fields
attracted less interest.--Patrick Cockburn, "Bidding war
for Iraq's huge oil contracts sputters into life: Government plays hardball
in fees payable to international oil companies," Independent, July
[Two years before the invasion of Iraq, oil executives and foreign policy
advisers told the Bush administration that the United States would remain "a
prisoner of its energy dilemma" as long as Saddam Hussein was in power.
That April 2001 report, "Strategic Policy Challenges for the 21st Century,"
was prepared by the James A. Baker Institute for Public Policy and the U.S.
Council on Foreign Relations at the request of then-Vice President Dick
Cheney.--Jason Leopold, "Eager
to Tap Iraq's Vast Oil Reserves, Industry Execs Suggested Invasion,"
truthout.org, July 3, 2009]
Tom Doggett, "Pickens says U.S. firms 'entitled' to Iraqi oil," Reuters,
October 22, 2009
[Now Mr. Galbraith, 58, son of the renowned economist John Kenneth
Galbraith, stands to earn perhaps a hundred million or more dollars as a
result of his closeness to the Kurds, his relations with a Norwegian oil
company and constitutional provisions he helped the Kurds extract.--James
Glanz and Walter Gibbs, "American Adviser to Kurds Stands to Reap Oil Profits,"
New York Times, November 12, 2009]
[Iraq is on course to overtake Iran as the holder of the world's
second-largest proven oil reserves, solidifying its position as the energy
industry's new frontier in the scramble to secure fresh resources.
Baghdad agreed on Friday to deals with Royal Dutch Shell and China's CNPC
for two large oilfields, following on from similar accords with ExxonMobil,
Eni and BP.--Carola Hoyos, "Iraq
set to be second in oil league table," Financial Times, December 11, 2009]
[Cheney's and Rumsfeld's script was never supposed to develop like this.
Instead of US Big Oil getting the lion's share, strategic competitors Russia
and China turned out to be big winners.--Pepe Escobar, "Iraq's oil
auction hits the jackpot," Asia Times, December 16, 2009]
Sinan Salaheddin, "Chinese-Turkish consortium seals Iraq oil deal,"
AP, May 17, 2010
[The map of the world's main energy suppliers is about to change as Iraq's
oil output quadruples over the next 10 years according to new forecasts.
Iraq will eventually displace Saudi Arabia as the world's biggest exporter,
experts predict, giving Baghdad crucial influence over the future price of
oil. . . .
Increased Iraqi output will total 7.5 million, far in excess of the expected
increased production capacity of all of the rest of Opec. . . .
It has long been known that Iraq has vast oil reserves, mostly in the south
of the country around Basra, but these have been under-exploited because
international oil companies were locked out of Iraq after the
nationalisation of oil by Iraq in 1972.--Patrick Cockburn, "Iraq
looks to spectacular oil boom to revive its political fortunes,"
Independent, July 1, 2010]
Patrick Cockburn, "Exxon's deal with the Kurds
inflames Baghdad," Independent, December 9, 2011
Greg Muttit, "'Fuel
on the Fire": Author Greg Muttit on Oil and Politics in Occupied Iraq,
Arab Spring'," democracynow.org, July 16, 2012