A cyberattack that sabotaged Iran's uranium enrichment program was an "act of force" and
was likely illegal, according to research commissioned by NATO's cyberwarfare center.
"Acts that kill or injure persons or destroy or damage objects are unambiguously uses of
force" and likely violate international law, according to the Tallinn Manual on the
International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, a study produced by international legal
experts at the request of NATO's Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence in
Estonia. . . .
[Yet the 2015 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. intelligence community submitted
recently to the Senate Armed Services Committee has explicitly conceded that the risk of
"cyber Armageddon" is at best "remote."--Bill Blunden, "Cyber
Armageddon is a Myth," counterpunch.org, March 23, 2015]
The Spy in Your Phone, Al Jazeera World, January 6, 2021
Zero-day: a software bug that allows a hacker to break into your devices . . . For
decades, the United States government became the world's dominant hoarder of zero-days .
. . Then the United States government lost control of the hoard and the market. (jacket inside) . . .
President George W. Bush needed something to get the Israelis off his back that didn't entail
starting World War III. (Chapter 9, p117) . . .
To be fair, we were doing the same in Iran. We had been for years, actually. Under a
highly classified program conceived under Bush but acceleratated under Obama -- code
named Nitro Zeus -- U.S. Cyber Command started planting time bombs in Iran's
communications systems, air defenses, and critical parts of its grid. By June 2019 it
was safe to assume that Iran's attacks on U.S. critical infrastructure was Tehran
responding in kind. What the security community witnessed that summer was, in effect,
mutually assured destruction in real time. (p355) -- Nicole Perlroth, "This Is How
They Tell Me the World Ends: The Cyberweapons Arms Race," Bloomsbury Publishing;
1st edition (February 9, 2021)