April 17, 2006
The Wisdom Fund

Assured by the U.S., Saddam Invaded Kuwait

From the Gulf War of 1991, to September 11, 2001, and the invasion, and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. government and major news media have concealed the truth.

by Enver Masud

On March 16, 2006, George W. Bush presented the U.S. National Security Strategy (NSS) the twin pillars of which are:

- promoting freedom, justice, and human dignity;
- confronting the challenges of our time by leading a growing community of democracies.

Defeating global terrorism is a key component of this strategy intended to achieve the NSS goals. Indeed the war on terrorism, launched shortly after the attacks of September 11, 2001, was intended to do just that.

Arguably the U.S. occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq have created more "terrorists", and the facts reveal that freedom, justice, human dignity, and democracy are not the real goals of the NSS.

Rumsfeld fired Gen. Garner for trying to build a democratic Iraq.

In September 2003 I asked: "Israel does not have a written constitution. The British do not have a written constitution. The U.S. constitution provided few benefits for the majority of Americans for over 150 years. So why must the Iraqis wait for a new constitution before the U.S. occupation force transfers power to them?"

Author and investigative journalist Greg Palast confirms the answer given by many in the alternative news media. In his April 14, 2006 column, Palast relates his conversation with General Jay Garner - the United States' first post-invasion "viceroy" in Iraq:

"Garner arrived in Kuwait City in March 2003 working under the mistaken notion that when George Bush called for democracy in Iraq, the President meant the Iraqis could choose their own government. Misunderstanding the President's true mission, General Garner called for Iraqis to hold elections within 90 days and for the U.S. to quickly pull troops out of the cities to a desert base. 'It's their country,' the General told Palast of the Iraqis. 'And their oil'."

Gen. Garner's tenure as "viceroy" was short-lived. "On April 21, 2003," writes Palast, "the very night General Garner arrived in Baghdad, he got a call from Washington. It was Rumsfeld on the line. He told Garner, in so many words, 'Don't unpack, Jack, you're fired'."

Garner was replaced by Paul Bremer, the Managing Director of Kissinger Associates, who postponed elections for a year. Then "he issued 100 orders," writes Palast "selling off Iraq's economy to U.S. and foreign operators, just as Rumsfeld's neo-con clique had desired."

"The 9/11 Commission Report" offers no explanation for the collapse of the 47-story Building 7 of the World Trade Center.

The Project for the New American Century (PNAC), in a report titled "Rebuilding America's Defenses," wrote: "the process of transformation, even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one, absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event - like a new Pearl Harbor."

For most Americans, reducing defense spending may be the way to a better life. The September 11, 2001 attack on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center was for PNAC, and its neo-con allies, the "new Pearl Harbor."

"The 9/11 Commission Report" - the official U.S. explanation of September 11 - is full of inconsistencies. Consider just one.

The twin towers of the World Trade Center were obliterated. The 47-story Building 7 of the World Trade Center (WTC 7) collapsed in about seven seconds.

"The 9/11 Commission Report" tells us that the Mayor's Office of Emergency Management was located on the 23rd floor of WTC 7, and at 8:48 AM the Emergency Operations Center was activated, but it does not mention the collapse of WTC 7. Major news media have largely ignored this glaring omission.

Videos of the collapse of the 47-story WTC 7, while readily available on alternative news sites, have generally not been shown to the public by major news media after September 11. The collapse of the nine-story Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995 was repeatedly shown on television, and initially blamed on Muslim terrorists.

Scholars such as theologian Dr. David Ray Griffin, and MIT engineer Jeff King question the official version of September 11. Dr. Steven E. Jones, a physics professor at Brigham Young University, writes: "Concluding remarks in the FEMA report on the WTC 7 collapse lend support to my arguments: The specifics of the fires in WTC 7 and how they caused the building to collapse ["official theory"] remain unknown at this time."

Prof. Jones attempted to make his point on MSNBC's "The Situation" with Tucker Carlson last November.

Actor Charlie Sheen, during his appearance with radio talk show host Alex Jones on CNN's "Showbiz Tonight" last month, said: "It seems to me like 19 amateurs with box cutters taking over four commercial airliners and hitting 75% of their targets, that feels like a conspiracy theory."

CNN asked its viewers: "Do you agree with Charlie Sheen that the U.S. government covered up the real events of the 9/11 attacks?" The results after 15,079 votes had been cast: 83% voted "Yes"; 17% voted "No".

Among those questioning the "The 9/11 Commission Report" are Rep. Cynthia McKinney, former presidential advisor and CIA analyst Ray McGovern, economist Morgan Reynolds, and former Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Paul Craig Roberts - the father of Reaganomics.

The September 11 attacks were used to rally Americans behind the U.S. attack on Afghanistan, and the 2003 invasion and occupation of Iraq.

Saddam Hussein was "assured by the United States that it would have no objection to his claiming his prize - Kuwait."

Dr. George Friedman whose firm Stratfor has been dubbed by Barron's as "The Shadow CIA", and who has provided analysis to Fortune 500 companies, news outlets, and the U.S. government writes in his book "America's Secret War":

"The Carter administration wanted to motivate Saddam to fight, but he had little to gain simply by fighting Iran. What Saddam wanted was to become the dominant power in the Persian Gulf. Absorbing Kuwait, which had historically been a part of Iraq under the Ottoman Empire until the British carved it our for their own interests, was a key goal, but so was dominating the region politically. He knew that if he defeated Iran, Iraq would be the dominant power in the region. He was also quietly assured by the United States that it would have no objection to his claiming his prize - Kuwait - once he defeated Iran. The assurances were very quiet and very deniable. . . .

"In his famous meeting with U.S. Ambassador April Glaspie on July 25, 1990, just before the invasion, Saddam calmly explained his intention to invade Kuwait, and Glaspie, not informed by the State Department that the policy had changed, proceeded to give Saddam the reassurance of American support that had been the U.S. policy transmitted by ambassadors and back channels for a decade. . . .

"What Glaspie didn't know. and what Glaspie hadn't been told, was that the United States had never expected Iraq to win and certainly was not prepared to let Saddam collect his war prize."

Iraq's subsequent invasion of Kuwait was used by President George H. W. Bush to justify the 1991 war with Iraq, and the crippling sanctions that followed the war.

The sanctions were maintained throughout the Clinton administration, and into the George W. Bush administration.

The U.S. lied to sell the 1991 Iraq war to Americans.

Ever since the Arab oil embargoes of the 1970s, the U.S. had been seeking an opportunity to dominate the Middle East. Now the public had to be rallied to the "just war."

A high point of the public relations campaign against Iraq, was the testimony of a Kuwaiti refugee, before the Congressional Human Rights Caucus on October 15, 1990, who told of Iraqi troops removing over 300 babies from incubators in Kuwait City hospital, and dumping them on the floor to die.

On January 6, 1992, John R. MacArthur, publisher of Harper's Magazine and author of "Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War," revealed in a New York Times Op-Ed that "Nayirah," the alleged refugee, was the daughter of Saud al-Sabah, Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, and that Hill and Knowlton, a large public relations firm, had helped prepare her testimony, which she had rehearsed before video cameras in the firm's Washington office.

"The chairmen of the Congressional group, Tom Lantos, a California Democrat, and John Edward Porter, an Illinois Republican, explained that Nayirah's identity would be kept secret to protect her family from reprisals in occupied Kuwait" wrote MacArthur.

To build bases in Saudi Arabia, from which to launch the 1991 war on Iraq, the U.S. lied to the Saudis.

On September 6, 2002, Scott Peterson of the Christian Science Monitor, wrote:

"When George H. W. Bush ordered American forces to the Persian Gulf - to reverse Iraq's August 1990 invasion of Kuwait - part of the administration case was that an Iraqi juggernaut was also threatening to roll into Saudi Arabia.

"Citing top-secret satellite images, Pentagon officials estimated in mid-September that up to 250,000 Iraqi troops and 1,500 tanks stood on the border, threatening the key US oil supplier.

"But when the St. Petersburg Times [Jean Heller, January 6, 1991] in Florida acquired two commercial Soviet satellite images of the same area, taken at the same time, no Iraqi troops were visible near the Saudi border - just empty desert."

The "top-secret satellite images" were used to persuade the Saudis to allow U.S. troops into Saudi Arabia - home of the holiest of Muslim shrines, the Kaaba at Mecca. The U.S. bases in Saudi Arabia turned Osama Bin Laden, who had sided with the U.S. in expelling the Soviet Union from Afghanistan, against the U.S.

Enver Masud founded The Wisdom Fund - a nonprofit corporation - eleven years ago today.

Smedley Darlington Butler, "War Is a Racket," 1933

Alan Geyer and Barbara G. Green, "Lines in the Sand: Justice and the Gulf War," Westminster John Knox Press (May 1992)

Enver Masud, "Millions Spent Subverting 'Enemies,' Stifling Dissent," The Wisdom Fund, February 15, 2001

George Friedman, "America's Secret War," Strategic Forecasting, Inc., October 11, 2005

Enver Masud, "Deadly Deception, Pretexts for War," The Wisdom Fund, July 30, 2001

[. . . the invasion of Iraq "was the culmination of a 110-year period during which Americans overthrew fourteen governments that displeased them for various ideological, political, and economic reasons.--Stephen Kinzer, "Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq," Times Books, April 4, 2006]

[Referring to discussions he had had with U.S. leaders in October 1989 as well as to debate at the May 30, 1990 Baghdad Summit, Aziz summed up the situation as it appeared to Iraq at the time: "So the picture in 1990 was one of Israeli threats to Iraq with the prospect of a war between Israel and Iraq, and an Israeli threat against Jordan, and an Israeli threat to the Palestinian people . . . ." On top of this came the economic warfare launched by Kuwait, which had flooded the oil markets, triggering a drop in the oil price from $21 a barrel to $11 a barrel. Iraq was "on the verge of economic collapse," Aziz said. Despite an agreement struck at a meeting of oil ministers to return to quota levels, "the Kuwaiti oil minister issued a statement after the meeting which said Kuwait would go back to the old position in two months’ time." Aziz concluded: "What he was saying constituted war against Iraq." Thus the move against Kuwait was in self-defense.

Significantly, it was at this point that Tariq Aziz made an interesting offer to Baker, to cooperate to reach a "just, comprehensive and lasting peace for the whole region," and added that, unless the Palestinian issue were resolved, "our security in Iraq will continue to be threatened." Aziz concluded his case by rejecting the double standard used by the US. "There are other UN resolutions to be implemented," he said, obviously referring to those condemning Israel's occupation of Palestinian lands. "But there are no forces sent to implement them."--Muriel Mirak-Weissbach, "Why Tariq Aziz Should Be Released,", September 16, 2010]


[When one reads the communications between Washington and Iraq, it was not difficult to believe that a green light had been given to Saddam Hussein to march into Kuwait without US interference. Without this invasion, getting the American people to support a war with Iraq would have been very difficult. . . .

On August 1, 1990, one week after this exchange between ambassador Glaspie and Saddam Hussein, the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq occurred. Immediately following this attack our State Department made it clear that this invasion would not stand and President Bush would lead a coalition in removing Iraqi forces from Kuwait.--Ron Paul, "A Green Light for the American Empire,", March 14, 2015]

[the Iraq War didn't begin on March 20, 2003 as everybody thought, it began ten months earlier on May 20, 2002 when the allies started the secret air war. It was definitely illegal because it started six months before the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1441 which Tony Blair's government later used to claim the war was legal.--Michael Smith, "The Secret US-UK Airwar Against Iraq,", July 26, 2016] back button